Distribution of gastric carcinoma in an area with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori
Departments of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Department of Biological Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Turk J Gastroenterol 2017; 28: 98-103
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Key Words: Gastric carcinoma, male, age, H. pylori, noncardiac, intestinal type carcinoma, signet cell carcinoma
Background/Aims: South Asia is an enigma for gastric cancer (GC) because it is a low risk region with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections. We evaluated the trend of GC clinical presentation and risk factors in patients with dyspeptic symptoms.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of patients, coded by the international classification of diseases (ICD-10-CM, 2015, Diagnosis Code C16.9) for malignancies of stomach diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and histopathology, were studied.
Results: 394 GC cases with a mean age of 54±15 years, range of 18 to 88, were analyzed. 256 (65%) were male. Distal non-cardiac and cardiac tumors were 302 (77%) and 92 (23%) cases, respectively. The WHO classification of GC defined 222 (56%) cases as intestinal type adenocarcinoma, 68 (17%) cases as signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC), 62 (16%) cases as diffuse type and 42 (11%) cases as B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The co-morbid conditions associated with GC were H. pylori infection (positive in 246 (62%) cases), diabetes mellitus type 2 (in 90 (23%) cases), and cigarette smoking (in 94 (24%) cases). Of the male patients, 88 (34%) (p<0.001) were smokers. Body mass index was abnormal in all age groups and in both sexes. Cardiac regions for GC were more common in the 46- to 60-year old age range and in males. Diffuse GC was seen in all age groups but there were significantly more common in the 18- to 45-year old age range. Gastric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was seen at an early age of 18-45 years in 14(12%) and a later of 61-88 years in 20 (15%).
Conclusion: Intestinal type GC is common at all ages but SRC and diffuse GC are more common in patients less than 50 years old. SRC and diffuse GC were not specific to the elderly in our study population.